The Hull Fishing Industry – post 1950
Kingston upon Hull was for more than 150 years a major renowned fishing port and in the 1950s through to the mid 1970s St. Andrews Dock was recognized as the home of the world’s largest distant water fleet of deep sea trawlers.
From the early 1950s through to the mid 1970s Hull’s distant water fleet developed from old pre-war coal burning side trawlers to crude oil, then diesel electric power culminating in the introduction of stern trawling factory vessels. Many of the older vessels were scrapped and, with the oil price increase in the 1960s, the scrapping of vessels accelerated. In 1975 St. Andrews Fish Dock was closed and operations moved back to Albert Dock, the original home of the fleet. In 1976 the last of the oil fuelled vessels, the Arctic Ranger, was withdrawn from service.
After WW2, fishing the Arctic waters off the coasts of Norway, Iceland, Russia, Bear Island, Greenland, Labrador and Newfoundland was prolific and, for the most part a lucrative business. The grounds around those coastlines had, due to wartime hostilities been closed to commercial fishing operations resulting in a massive natural increase in fish stocks. The area around Bear Island was an example when vessels from Hull and Grimsby were regularly returning to port with capacity catches.
To maximise carrying capacity the crews, when gutting the fish, beheaded them in order to allow greater edible weight of catch to be stowed in the fish hold. This practice created over supply and, as a consequence, affected fish prices on the fish markets at all ports with unsold fish being sent, at a pittance of their true cost, to the fish meal companies to be turned into animal feed. In later years the practice of returning fish heads to the sea was blamed for the pollution of the sea bed.
Over the years a number of factors resulted in fish stocks being depleted to such an extent that the nations controlling the Arctic grounds took action to conserve their commercial interests. This action included the extension of Territorial Fishing Limits around their coastlines.
What effect did the 200 mile limit have on the Humber fishing ports?
The three ‘Cod Wars’ between Britain and Iceland were the consequence of Iceland’s unilateral declaration of exclusion zones eventually resulting in a 200 mile limit around Iceland’s coastline being imposed thereby expelling foreign vessels from thousands of square miles of traditional fishing grounds. Norway, Canada and other countries also adopted this policy/ban.
For the Humber ports of Hull and Grimsby, who were both extensively distant water operators these actions were a disaster and signalled the beginning of the end for a number of other British ports, in addition the fleets that sailed from Fleetwood and a smaller number of Scottish fleets were left with only home waters to fish. The overall effect was that thousands of people employed in the fishing industries, both in the catching and processing of fish, lost their livelihoods when many businesses folded, with hundreds of ships being laid up/scrapped.
A nationwide workforce of highly skilled experienced fishermen who had developed their knowledge over many years was no longer required and suffered redundancy. Many of the seamen, some of a mature age, were not able to adapt and never sailed again, whilst others found employment in different maritime fields or low paid manual shore work.
What caused the decline in fish stocks worldwide?
A number of factors which contributed to the depletion of fish stocks were: the development of electronics, fish finding equipment such as sophisticated fish echo sounders, sonar, net sounders, which created the ability to carry out mid water (pelagic) trawling instead of the traditional seabed (demersal ) trawling. With demersal trawling, if the fish were detected more than four (4) or five (5) metres off the seabed, they evaded being caught as they were above the vertical opening of the trawl net. Once mid water trawls were introduced the trawls vertical opening was much greater and could be positioned anywhere within the water depth, which allowed a greater volume of the water column to be fished giving the fish little chance of evading the net. This was made possible by the introduction of sonar, which increased detection of shoaling fish, and the net sounder which showed the Skipper at what depth his trawl was operating.
The fact that the mid water trawls did not need to be dragged along the seabed made for less friction which in turn could result in a saving on fuel consumption/costs and allowed vessels to tow much larger trawls. A trawl in mid water was a lot less likely to sustain net damage and therefore increased its catching capability.
A scientific theory was that with the phenomena of global warming, sea temperatures had changed affecting the breeding of fish in the Arctic waters, in particular the traditional breeding grounds along the Norwegian Coast. However, while this was true for adult cod, they appear to be somewhat more conservative in their choice of water temperature when they spawn. During a comprehensive scientific experiment it was determined that all fish stocks studied, including Cod, consistently sought out water that had a temperature of between one (1) and eight (8) degrees. This indicated that the egg and larvae stages of a cod’s life may constitute a particularly vulnerable time with regard to the effects of climate change.
These damaging factors were ignored in the pursuit of financial gain, and a large portion of the blame for today’s problems can be laid at the door of national authorities who governed the fishing areas and the fish stock management, over fishing, by trawler owners.
Management of Hull’s Fishing Fleet
The owners of Hull’s Fishing Fleet were hard nosed business men whose ambition and financial acumen turned Hull into a highly successful world renowned fishing port. Their endeavour provided employment to a large percentage of the local workforce, either directly or indirectly. Their poor understanding of fish stock management was damaging to the industry and indirectly contributed to its eventual collapse.
Blatant disregard to the preservation of existing fish stocks was completely ignored when vessels from many northern countries fished seasonally along the coastline off Norway during a time when breeding was ongoing. The fish caught had millions of young fish within their bodies in the form of fish roe which were never allowed to develop into fully grown fish. Although the fish roe was saved and landed and sold as part of the catch, the profit realised from this product never compensated for the damaging loss of the potential replenishment of fish stocks.
The Highs and Lows of a Deep sea Fisherman
The business of deep sea fishing was a brutal and uncompromising way of earning a living and was recognised as the most dangerous of jobs. These dangers were also evident in the running of a financial business that relied heavily on day to day supply and demand.
Trawlers often brought a catch to market with the crew having optimistic views on how much their hard earned work would profit them, only for an excess amount of fish being landed or a poor demand by the processors, to dash their hopes. These circumstances not only affected the crew but the cost of sending a vessel to sea for three weeks or more, fully loaded with the necessary fuel and equipment was an expensive outlay which often resulted in both crew and owner settling in debt.
However, the heartbreaking situation of working for three weeks without remuneration was nothing compared to the dangers encountered on vessels regularly plying their trade in the Arctic which geographically almost always presented an environment fraught with inherent danger.
Gale and storm force winds coupled with sub-zero temperatures, led to extreme icing up conditions which were frequently encountered during the winter months. Accidents, sometimes life changing injuries to crew were normal. Weather conditions made operational activities many times more dangerous and could result in loss of life caused by crew members being crushed, caught by wires, ropes parting under strain, and the washing of a man overboard inevitably led to loss of life. The tragedies which could overcome a vessel and crew more often than not were down to circumstances and weather conditions over which there was very little control.
With vessels experiencing gale, storm and, on occasions, hurricane force winds combined with severe icing up, the ship’s superstructure collected additional top weight which could quickly affect the vessel’s stability leading to it capsizing with catastrophic consequences. Hull suffered many such incidents over the years when vessels sank and all hands on board perished.
However, there were times when decisions, made by the Skipper to continue fishing in extreme weather conditions, led to accidents, loss of life and, in some cases, loss of the vessel. Trawler owners were hard taskmasters and expected their Skippers to combat and overcome conditions and circumstances that were obstacles to success.
Roles of the Crew
A system of marine education implemented by the trawler owners and government regulations allowed trainee fishermen to be trained in the technical and safety aspects needed for the progress through life in the Fishing Industry. Sea time, during which they learned their trade, was the most beneficial process through which all fishermen needed to become competent and earn promotion. Any ambitious fisherman would during his career observe and learn from the man immediately above him in the chain of command.
Legislation required that all ship’s Officers followed and completed the Department of Transport examinations together with the required amount of sea time. This process spanned a number of years during which time the person worked at each job title stage and achieved the necessary experience and qualifications.
To take command of a deep sea trawler required a number of disciplines. The way forward for any young person joining the Fishing Industry was as one would expect to start at the bottom of the ladder. Ambition, hard work, intelligence, determination, strength of character and a large slice of luck were the main ingredients needed to progress through the stages to become a Skipper. Being in command of a vessel was the ambition of most fishermen and those who did achieve command took on a great responsibility. The most responsible part of the Skipper’s duties was to ensure the safety of his vessel and crew, a task always made difficult due to weather conditions and operational procedures.
Making his vessel a profitable unit was his objective and the most difficult to achieve as it relied on a number of variables, not least the vessel of which he was Skipper. A modern vessel with the latest equipment and advanced technology gave a Skipper the edge over a rival in command of an older vessel with outdated gear.
The most positive and valuable asset to any potential Skipper was the ability to predict where and when to take his vessel to the most prolific fishing grounds. Successful Skippers seemed to have this inbuilt sense coupled with experience and historic information collated over years which enabled them to consistently complete profitable trips. The recording of information relating to date, time of year, location, weather and sea temperature, etc, being logged and retained for future reference was absolutely necessary for them to build up a catalogue of vital personal knowledge. There was a saying in the Industry that went ‘A Skipper was only as good as his last trip’ Over the years a number of Skippers were noted for their ability to catch fish. People like Roy Waller, Richard Taylor,Charles Drevers, Bernard Wharram who all were very successful. The most successful was Bill Brettell who on a number of occasions won the top award. Many people claimed that fish which became stuck in the meshes of his net (stickers) were trying to get into his trawl, not out.
Many of these top men regularly featured in the Silver Cod/Challenge Shield Competition which identified the ship, Skipper and crew who, over twelve months landed the most fish and generated the most points making them the top vessel for the year. Although these competitions were open to all vessels operating from the Humber ports, it is a fact that no Grimsby trawler won either the Silver Cod or The Challenge Shield. The nature of these competitions led to criticism from many people who claimed that the aim to be top ship led to recklessness on the part of the Skipper, in that he would continue to fish in weather conditions that were considered too dangerous.
Although there were a number of trawling companies trading from Hull, successful Skippers sailed mainly for one employer and were coveted by the Company. Less successful ones often had to move to another company to seek a command. Many failed to be a success at all and spent a great deal of time sailing as Mate or even lower rating.
There was an unwritten rule practiced by trawler owners which banned ship’s officers, in particular Skippers, from seeking work with alternate companies. A company which agreed to give a Skipper a job had to seek agreement from the company from which the Skipper was leaving. This rule was often used as a form of punishment by a company who did not want a Skipper to transfer his employment and therefore did not allow a transfer to take place. Under these circumstances an individual could be unemployed for weeks/months at a time.
As second in command the Mate was required to assume overall responsibility when the Skipper was otherwise employed e.g. sleeping below. The Mate organised and supervised the watch keeping rota and the daily work schedule for the ‘day men’ who prepared the fishing gear en route to the fishing grounds. During fishing operations the Mate managed the deck when the trawl gear was being shot and hauled and was responsible for the stowage and landed condition of the catch. When the Mate had his watch below period, he had an appointed ‘fishroom man’ to cover his absence down the fishroom over a twelve hour period . (The twelve hours consisted of the Mate’s watch below and his time in command on the bridge whilst the Skipper slept).
The ‘fishroom man’ had to be hard working and conscientious and ensure the fish were sorted and stowed correctly. For this added responsibility the fishroom man received a (secret) gratuity when the catch was landed and sold. The Mate was personally obligated and liable for the payment of this tax free bonus (known as a backhander).
Fresh fish trawler trips to Iceland, Norway etc, were normally of 21 days duration but when fishing distant grounds off the coasts of Greenland, Labrador or Newfoundland, they were away for up to 28 days. The landing of fresh fish which was more than sixteen or seventeen days old could result in a poor quality product which, in turn often led to fish being unsold and sent to the fish meal plant. Profitability depended upon a catch being a good quality product. If a poor quality catch was presented on the market the Mate was held responsible and this often led to him losing his job.
When fresh fish trawlers landed their catch, the sale of the fish was sold by a system known as a Dutch auction. This was the accepted way of doing business but could be a hit and miss method due to supply and demand of the day. Dutch auctions start at a high price and come down in stages with the buyers making their bid as and when the price suits them.
The crew of fresh fish vessels could, and sometimes did, complete a trip which resulted in them owing the Company money. Assuming the crewman sailed on the vessel’s next trip, the deficit would be deducted from the monies earned on that trip. Settling in debt occurred when a very poor trip was brought to market coinciding with poor demand and low prices. If a vessel had a major breakdown and returned home, it rarely cleared expenses. These incidents not only cost the crew but also the owners.
All crew members profited from the sale of the catch based on a percentage of the gross earning of the vessel. The Skipper and Mate, as ‘share men’ were paid on the nett earnings of the vessel, i.e. after all expenses incurred on that trip were deducted. These expenses included all payment made to sources such as the crews earnings, fuel costs, landing of the catch, etc. If the vessels catch realised £12,000 gross the crew members would receive their agreed percentage of £12,000. The Skipper and Mate would receive their agreed percentage after expenses, e.g. if the expenses for the trip was £4,000 they would settle on £8,000.
The Skipper, as a share man, earned £100 to every £1,000 of the nett amount the catch made. So in the example above he would settle on £8,000 which meant his share would be 8 x £100 = £800 plus trip money of £80 totalling £880, less any personal expenses. The Mate would settle on £75 to the thousand, e.g. 8 x 75 = £600 but no trip money. The Mate was also responsible for his own personal expenses. Personal expenses included items from the outfitting store, such as personal protective clothing, and his bond bill incurred during the trip, items such as tobacco, cigarettes, chocolate and a limited allowance of alcohol.
The position of boatswain required a man of good seamanship and net technology knowledge. He deputised for the Mate during the periods when the Mate was sleeping or acting in command during the Skipper’s watch below. It was a role that most men progressing through the ranks had to master. Quite often the Boatswain was a mature seaman who never achieved his ambition to be in command or serve as Mate, sometimes as a result of failing the required Department of Trade eyesight test.
On passage to and from the fishing grounds the Boatswain was the Officer in charge of one of the three watches but whilst fishing his role was total committed to deck work. The major part of his job was organising the hauling and shooting of the gear during fishing operations. A specific quality required for this role was expertise in net fixing and repair. Further to this, the ability to sort out foul gears, a situation that often occurred when a main wire, such as the warp or cable was severed whilst the gear was on the seabed leading to the gear having to be retrieved via a single wire, warp or cable, was expected of the Boatswain. But by far the greatest ability a boatswain could have was to be an able net repairer. The Skipper determined where he wanted to tow his trawl, sometimes the seabed was even and kind to the net, other areas were not and the trawl would often be hauled onboard with substantial damage done to it. The Skipper would solicit from the boatswain the extent and time required to repair it. Experience allowed the boatswain to estimate how long the repair would take. His answer to the Skipper would either lead to repairing the net or the Skipper instructing the crew to put a full new trawl in place. To mend a badly damaged net the boatswain would organise those deckhands who were proficient at mending to start repairs, one from either end of the split, but could also by calculation, perform a manoeuvre whereby he started two other deckhands at a ‘jump’ point in the middle of the tear. This meant that four (4) men could be mending at the same time to repair the damage thereby halving the time taken. Many Skippers carried regular boatswains for this skillful ability.
The boatswain was not a shareman and was paid a percentage of £12.5 to every thousand pounds of the gross amount the vessel’s catch made, plus liver money. He was paid a weekly wage to his family or designated representative.
All qualified deckhands were paid a weekly wage. Their settlement from the catch was equal to £6 for every thousand pound of the gross amount the vessel’s catch made, plus liver money. Many fishermen were content to sail always as deckhand and did not, for whatever reason, wish to attain promotion.
With the work schedule during fishing operations, and the often horrendous weather conditions the deck crew were subject to, it is surprising that any harmonious atmosphere existed at all. It is easy to see, after eighteen hours of hard work with only six hours rest, in extremely hazardous and freezing conditions, how discord could start between tired men. The deckhands were that part of the crew that were most effected by the conditions and circumstances under which they operated. The period of rest included meal times and any personal hygiene a man would wish to undertake. A meal lasting half an hour when leaving the deck to go watch below, and a meal when he was awakened to start work again, reduced actual sleeping time to less than five hours.
A large percentage of these men were very capable, hard working, excellent shipmates who frequently stayed in a particular vessel for long periods of time. It was a bonus to sail in a vessel manned by men such as these; the camaraderie made life at sea that little bit more acceptable. A crew of competent seamen, who were not afraid of hard work, who hoped for good fishing was a boon to a Skipper. Team work on board always led to a productive and, in general, a happy ship. An accomplished deckhand was not simply a labourer most had seamanship skills, especially in net repair, that could only be achieved by years of sea time experience.
Engine Room Personnel. On side trawlers the engine room was manned by a Chief Engineer, a Second Engineer, and two Firemen/Greasers. The Chief was responsible for the running and maintenance of the engines and all other auxiliary equipment, this included the deck winch and the anchor windlass. The Second engineer took charge of the Engine Room during the Chief’s rest time. The four engine room staff worked two watches of two men, six hours on, six hours off, throughout the trip. Although their work schedule was less extreme to those on deck, it was nevertheless a demanding job which stared once the vessel left the quayside until it berthed again at the end of the trip. The Chief and a Firemen formed one watch, with the Second and a Fireman the other. The Firemen’s role was one of continued basic maintenance and cleaning. The Chief and Second Engineers had the additional responsibility of ensuring the deck winch was kept in a good operational condition at all times. During bad weather this often involved them having to go on deck to oil/check the working parts. The winch was one of the most important items of equipment, without it the trawler gear could not be shot or hauled. In terms of seniority, although there were no laid down rules, it was accepted that the Chief Engineer’s role was on a par with that of the Mate. Financially they differed as the Mate was classed as a ‘shareman’ and only came on pay after all expenses of the vessel were met. The Chief’s remuneration was based on a gross settlement and he was also paid a weekly wage.
Catering/Galley Staff. The galley was manned by the Cook and his assistant/galley boy. The role of the Cook was probably one of the most difficult onboard the vessel. In addition to working in a really confined space in often extreme weather conditions in which everything he prepared had to be firmly placed to avoid it being spilled as the vessel rolled and pitched, the use of ‘battens’ on the galley stove bore evidence to this. These iron bars divided the stove top and could be moved and temporarily fixed to retain the food filled pans in place whilst cooking. In addition the Cook had the unenviable problem of cooking for a twenty man crew and pleasing them all with the meals he prepared. Three meals a day plus a cold buffet supper table, meant that the Cook had to provide a variety of foods that not only were tasty but were nutritious and suitable to satisfy twenty hardworking men some of whom had just come of the deck from a wet freezing and at times hostile environment. The Galley staff worked long hours with breakfast usually two sittings between six am and seven am followed by dinner at twelve noon to one pm. Tea was taken at six pm to seven pm. The cold supper often consisted of just bread,cheese, corned beef, and cold fried fish. Cold fish sandwiches were quite popular with many fishermen. The Cook and Galley boy finished their day at around eight pm. In addition they could usually catch a short nap in between dinner and teatime. At all time there was kettles of tea available. The Cook’s assistant was usually a young man/boy in the early stages of his life at sea. Some wished to follow a life in catering but in the main they were looking to be promoted onto the deck as a deckie learner. Their role as assistant to the Cook consisted of many menial tasks. Preparing vegetables, serving the crew’s messroom and Officer’s mess at meal times, washing up of all the many utensils used at mealtimes and general cleaning duties. The role of Cooks Assistant was not a well paid job and in order to supplement his salary he cleaned the berths of many of the crew who on settling day would give him a gratuity for his work. As a rule the Cook would look after his assistant and because they were generally youngster were helpful and would not allow them to be used.
The Radio Operator. The role of a radio operator was in the main highly technological with him being responsible for the operation and maintenance of all the electronics, such as the wireless receivers and transmitters, the radar(s), the echo sounders/fish finders, Other items of importance included Decca Navigators/Lorans and depending on how well the vessel was laid out the introduction of new technology was included in his work load.
Leisure activities between trips.
A feature of deckhands who worked well together, led to socializing at home when they went for nights out at the local entertainment venues. For all crew members the short time spent between trips was paramount. Once they had been down the dock to settle with the company to learn how much money he had earned for that trip, he then usually devoted his efforts to having a good time with his family. It was not unusual for them to take their children out of school, with or without notice (something that is not allowed nowadays) and go off to the seaside, etc, for the day. Some of the menfolk liked a day at the races and a flutter on the horses so Beverley, Doncaster and York racecourses were regularly visited by fishing families. Their wife’s treat was usually a town visit, to shop and dine out. The evenings were spent at local entertainment venues, pubs, clubs, theaters and dance halls. Such night spots included on Hessle Road, St Andrews Club, Dee Street & Albert Club, and Hessle Ex-serviceman’s Club (due to its extended opening hours) with the Tivoli, the Palace (later the Continental) and the New Theater being the favourite places to see national variety acts and celebrities. Popular public houses throughout the City of Hull included, the Rayners, Criterion, Half Way Hotel all sited on Hessle Road with music venue pubs such as the Ferryboat Hessle Haven, Maybury, and Blue Heaven in East Hull also Dixons Arms on the way to Beverley which though situated further afield attracted many fishermen at night. Dance halls such as the City Hall, Scala, Kevin Ballroom and Newington Hall with a number of public bath halls, Madeley Street, Beverley Road and as far afield as Withernsea Pavilion who offered a night, for those who liked to dance. (and drink late). The train journey back to Hull afterwards were often quite interesting trips.
Fishermen’s fashion sense.
Most Hull fishermen, especially the younger ones, were ‘snappy’ dressers with a style all of their own which changed on a regular basis, Their suits featured trousers with 24 inch bottoms and deep Spanish waistbands, whilst the jacket often had pleats in the back. The materials and colour of their clothing was often quite flamboyant ranging from pale blue, lime green and on occasions yellow. There were a number of local tailors who catered to the fishing industry mainly sited in the West of the City in particular Hessle Road. Some of these tailors, such as the Finestein Brothers, visited the trawler owners offices and waited outside to solicit crewmen into buying new clothing. The many tailoring/clothing establishments did great trade, as fishermen almost always bought new clothes when they were home between each trip. Businesses serving West Hull were, Waistells, Burras Peakes, Clothing House, (run by the popular Geoff/Jeff Levy) Edelstons,(‘Cush’ was a popular character) Henleys, Marcus Bishop and Southwells. Many young fishermen visited a particular tailors establishment on the Road because it was rumoured that measuring for the suit (including the inside leg) was taken by an attractive young female. In the City center tailoring service’s were provided by some high end tailors, Maurice Lipman, Jackson’s of Whitefriargate, Casril Brown’s in Carr Lane, Austin Reed in Jameson Street and Hepworths opposite the City Hall who claimed their menswear was designed by Hardy Amies a nationally renowned designer. It goes without saying that in general these businessmen charged more for their products than others. A specialist tailor Sam Bass on Paragon Street catered for Merchant Navy personnel with uniforms,blazers and sports coats. Some fishermen who liked to wear a sports jacket frequented Sam’s Premises.
The fishermen’s wives shopped for their clothing on both Hessle Road and in the large departmental stores in the City Centre. In the nineteen fifties Lena Gee was popular with the women of Hessle Road. The proprietor of this shop would even take clothes to the homes of the womenfolk for them to view prior to purchase. Clothing House also catered for the ladies and had a very profitable business on the Road for a number of years. In the late forties, early fifties hire purchase had become very popular with both sexes buying their attire via the use of the club check or by hire purchase. The like of Hammonds, Bladon’s, Edwin Davis, Thornton Varley and Debenhams were examples of major stores widely used by the fishing community. The fishermen always liked their wives and children to be smartly dressed and on night’s out the womenfolk always wore their best/newest clothes. The women in turn made a special effort to display themselves and their jewelry to the best effect. Settling day for a fishing family often included a meal out, with the Pic a Dish and the main restaurant in Hammonds being exceptionally popular. The full mixed grill in this eaterie was always a challenge to young deckhands after they had visited the pub. In those early days the public houses were only open 11.00am to 3.00pm and then closed until the evening, so many of the fishermen went for a meal after the pubs closed for the afternoon. The Lantern, in Whitefriargate and Jackson’s in Paragon Square were also popular eating venues. In the fifties the Chinese and Indian restaurants came into being, with the Red Dragon, above Fletcher’s near the fountain on the corner of King Edward Street, one of the first to open.
The fishing families sought their enjoyment and entertainment close to home and spent their leisure time visiting the Cinema, Theater, Social Clubs and the many public houses. The Langham was the most popular cinema venue being situated in the middle of Hessle Road and was decked out with excellent decor with the marble floored ‘crush hall’ being a particular feature. Feature films were shown Monday to Wednesday and then changed for Thursday through Saturday. Sunday showed a different film for one night only,often not a popular one . Another unique thing to this venue was they employed a Commissioner who when a really popular well supported film was to be shown. organised the queues and controlled the crowds. It was a fine venue and during the boom years of film making was a profitable business. When TV overtook the cinema, venues like the Langham began to go out of business and eventually the Langham became a Bingo Hall, again of some popularity. With the passing of time even the passion for bingo waned and in more recent years the once outstanding place of entertainment has served as several types of retail stores, i.e. furniture and carpet warehouses. Other popular cinema’s include the Dorchester and the Criterion both on George Street. The Tower and the Regent were also well used venues situated opposite each other on Anlaby Road. The ABC and the Cecil were top class well supported cinemas.
For the local fishermen who enjoyed a drink, an evening out was more often than not spent in one of the social clubs on and around Hessle Road. The most frequented clubs being the St. Andrews, Dee Street, Albert, Subway, Chomley and Tim Brown’s off Harrow Street. A newer club was built after the war and became the most popular for many national artistes who appeared there. The Phoenix Club was a purpose built entertainment venue and was well supported throughout its lifetime. Many excellent artistes such as the likes of Billy Fury appeared at the Phoenix A big attraction at most of these clubs was the opportunity to win ‘big’ money playing the Link Bingo. This process involved many of the clubs in and around the City linking up for a special one off cache of money for a single full house ( card). This was quite often in excess of a thousand pounds (£1,000) which in the sixties/seventies was a large amount of money. However as with all good schemes someone is only too willing to think up a scam. This happened with the Link bingo and as a consequence the game lost its credibility and was dropped. Individuals were prosecuted for this misdemeanor.
A number of the social clubs were owned by one family, Wally Palmer and his sons, Eric and John. His son-in-law Bill Mckenzie and his wife who managed Albert Club were tragically killed in an air disaster whilst on holiday in Tenerife; an accident from which there were no survivors.
Holidays & Days away.
Holidays for fishermen in the past only extended to places in the U.K. with a few venturing abroad. In the very early days after WW2, the seaside and holiday camps were extremely popular, with Butlins at Filey being the main location to visit by Yorkshire people. The east coast, from Hornsea to Whitby, were the most visited resorts, it was here that the fishermen shared the areas holiday attractions with the hard workers of the mining communities from West Yorkshire who loved to visit the openness of the seaside. The menfolk from mining communities had a common bond with the fishermen, they liked a pint or two and were family men. The caravan parks, in particular those at Withernsea, meant fishermen’s families could spend school holiday time away in their own trailers, caravans on Trailer Park, Nettleton’s Field and Moons Field within a very short distance from the beach, amusements, cafes, chippies and pubs. In the early years much of the site accommodation were old converted railway carriages and such, but as time passed and people prospered the introduction of modern factory built caravans saw the death of these fun ‘buildings of character’. Across the Humber in Lincolnshire, Cleethorpes and Skegness were also popular with fishing families from both Hull and Grimsby, they often met and shared the enjoyment of their holiday time at home. Modern fishermen take holidays abroad in exotic and exciting places which include the Islands of Maldives,Madeira ,Thailand and the USA especially the glamour of Las Vegas. The earnings of the today’s fishermen allow them to take their holidays wherever they choose, with very few places/countries off limits. Many have the view that they work hard in dangerously conditions, so nothing gets in the way of their enjoyment on holiday.
When West Hull changed.
In the 1940’s and 50’s the hub of the fishing industry was concentrated in West Hull and at its height the seagoing fleet brought great prosperity to the City of Hull in general, but Hessle Road in particular. The Road was a heavily populated residential area stretching from St. James Street / Walker Street in the east to Brighton Street / Carlton Street in the west. Many of these street had terraces off them which meant that they were densely populated rows of back to back housing. Bean Street was always quoted has being the most populated street in Hull. Gypsyville to the West and Porter Street to the East were basically extensions of Hessle Road. Much of West Hull suffered bomb damage during WW2 and it took many years for the area to be redeveloped.The resultant redevelopment plan meant huge swathes of street and houses were demolished and families were rehoused on new estates on the outer limits of the City, i.e Orchard Park, North Hull and the Longhill and Greatfield estates. Today these areas have been joined by Bransholme and Kingswood. This plan split up friends and neighbours who for many years had shared good and bad times together. Although relocation gave residents superior housing, it badly damaged the community spirit that was the essence of Hessle Road and the Fishing Community. Secondary to decimating the community spirit, places such as Orchard Park were never provided with facilities that could engage the young and allow the grown ups the leisure and social environment they had enjoyed in their old homes. This led to a feeling of isolation and created problems for the authorities, Orchard Park has never been updated resulting in the residents bearing resentment in what they see as abandonment, a feeling still felt by many to this day. The traders of Hessle Road including the taxi firms/individuals suffered badly with the movement of residents from the Hessle Road area and also when the Industry declined with many going out of business facing bankruptcy.
The make up of the Fishing Community covered a variety of jobs/trades. The seagoing people and those who worked within the Industry onshore were integrated through their relatives, marriage and the workplace. It has often been said that for every one fisherman employed there were seven people employed ashore in fish associated work. Depending on how many vessels were landing the West Hull area was a hive of activity, with a vibrant, exciting environment each day of the working week . Monday in particular was generally a day of heavy fish landings, as many as ten trawlers may bring their catch to market landing as much as two hundred thousand stones (200,000) of fish. With this volume of produce St. Andrews fish dock and the surrounding area began their working day when at around 2.00 am in the morning bobbers started landing the catch. The sale of fish to the many fish merchants commenced at 7.00 am and after the sales, their staff, filterers, barrow lads, etc started the process to prepare and box the fish prior to its transportation by road and rail to the many locations throughout the U.K. The fish merchants staff usually finished around 5.00 pm unless they had to catch the late evening train. The Easter period was always exceptionally busy, sometimes trawlers were landed, pulled from the market and another vessel would be berthed ready to land her catch. Ten or twelve vessels could be landed on these occasions with fish landings totalling 250, 000 stones. Most types of fish were landed and weighed off by the bobbers into 10 stone aluminium containers called kits. When fish landings began to decline six days a week was discontinued and reduced to five days, but again this was determined by how many vessels arrived.
In the 1960’s there were as many as one hundred and fifty (150) deep sea distant water trawlers based at St. Andrews Fish Dock. Each vessel had a crew of at least twenty (20) men and there was always a surplus of crewmen ashore at any time. The number of men on the seagoing register was approximately three and a half thousand (3,500). It is not difficult to see the disastrous economic effect this had on the businesses and workforce of the City when the industry declined and eventually imploded as a result of Iceland, Norway and other countries extending their fishing limits thereby excluding British vessels from traditional fishing grounds.. The loss of much of the seagoing personnel was not the only workforce to suffer. The many fish merchants and processing companies employed a large number of employees who were within a very short period of time, unemployed. With such a large number of unemployed seeking work at the same time it was very difficult to find another job. Some of the newly unemployed were skilled in a role that had no similar opportunity in the City, others were labourers but also suffered the same lack of opportunity. Workers who had been employed in the fishing industry had in general earned a reasonable standard of living so to become unemployed in such a short time with very little time to adjust meant many experienced financial difficulties with things such as mortgages, rents and facility bills, i.e. gas, electric, and rates. A percentage of the sea going men moved to the oil offshore fleets, which although and easier workload, paid less. A few even emigrated and went to Australia, New Zealand and Canada.
There was also a contingent that found employment, again in oil exploration, in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the United Emirates, these locations being very popular, in the main because of a more lucrative pay packet and reduced tax liabilities. Most of these countries had strict religious Islamic rules which had to be adhered to including the law banning alcohol, one law that did not go down well with ex-fishermen.
A few shore based fish processing companies struggled on managing a supply of imported and overland fish supplies and are still active in the City to this day. Firms such as Simpson’s Fish, Smales Fish, both still located off Hessle Road.
The most recent resurrection of fish landing in the port has come via the Hull registered ultra modern factory vessel ‘KIrkella’ H7 owned by UK. Fisheries. This state of the art fishing vessel brings a regular supply of One Thousand Two Hundred (1,200) tons of fish fillets to market approximately every eight/ten weeks. This product is processed onboard and landed ready for distribution to sales outlets locally and throughout the Country. The management of the product and fish stocks is rigorous and second to none in product quality and sustainability of the fishing grounds. The vessel design and specifications are first class, with working and leisure facilities making the crews environment both safe and enjoyable as one could wish for. The off duty activities include a gymnasium, sauna, cinema and berths that are fitted with telephones, television and internet. This environment plus the work schedule on offer makes the opportunities to become a crew member of ‘Kirkella’ very limited. The owners basically employ two (2) crews who operate one trip on and one trip off. Their daily work shift is eight hours on and eight hours off, a very different arrangement from the days of the side trawlers when the deck crew worked eighteen hours on and six hours off during the period the vessel was fishing. The operations bridge from which the Skipper oversees and carries out the hauling & shooting of the trawl gear and the skillful role of locating, catching and bringing onboard the catch is fitted out with the highest and most up to date technological equipment. It appears more sophisticated than the equipment used at Houston Control when landing men on the fifty years ago. The men who man these controls, the Skipper, and the Mate (when the Skipper is sleeping) are highly skilled fishermen who have not only mastered the new technology but have an instinct and lifelong knowledge for understanding how and where to catch fish. This instinct is a legacy from the days when the fisherman hunted their ‘prey’ using the barest of electronics, i.e echo sounding fish finders to search the water depths and a radar to accurately fix their position. They then over the years built up detailed records for future reference. Location, season, date, water depth, night or day fishing, sea and air temperature and weather conditions were some of the conditions that were meticulously logged both mentally and in written form.
Some Memories of Hessle Road – Post World War 2 (1954)
(STAND would welcome any suggested addition/amendment/correction to these memories)
Most people would accept that Hessle Road began at the junction of Porter Street/Waverley Street/St. James Street and Walker Street From this meeting of four residential streets Hessle Road ran to the west and was the main shopping/residential area of West Hull. The Vauxhall public house No 1 Hessle Road still stands today open to the public, on the corner of St. James Street. Opposite it on the corner which formed one side of Waverley Street was a cycle sales and repair shop called Nobby Clarkes. In later years this site was occupied by the Council owned restaurant ‘Galatea’.
South Side Hessle Road – Odd numbers.
On the South side of Hessle Road running from no.1. the Vauxhall, was a Co-op butchery, bakery and confectioners at no. 5-7, whilst no. 9-11 was shared by Stan Gresswell a cycle, radio and electrical dealer, and Bo’ness Iron Co. Ltd, general ironfounders. these firms were close to Commerce Lane, the businesses from there continued to Alfred Street which included Mallory’s at no.15-17-19 hardware merchants and dry saltery, adjacent at no.23 was F.W. Taylor sweets and tobacconist followed by J. Hy. Longbottom coal merchants ( which sported an excellent model train in the window). Close to the east corner of Alfred Street at 31-33-35 was cycle shops owned by L.C. Goodlife and S. Spencer, whilst on the west corner stood the Rose Tavern Hull Brewery Public House. Further along this block to the next intersection,which was Ropery Street was a butcher George.T. Bottrill, who was a staunch member of St. John Ambulance Service, Mulchinocks a watch maker and jeweller, Brookband saddlery, J.A. Dewar cycle dealer, Joshua Stones, fireplace manufacturer, P & R Chester electrical contractor and joiners, Wilf Barker gent’s hairdresser, Hockney fruit, flowers and canned foods, the last retail business was a Co-operative Store. which had a car park space adjacent to a small Jewish Cemetery which in turn adjoined a public house the Alexandra Hotel, Both the cemetery and public house are there to this day. Moving across to the west corner of Ropery Street found Silver’s, a confectioner & tobacconist, which as a youngster I visited to buy banana spilt toffee, which was still on ration and the only shop in the area to sell it. Next door was a ‘smelly’ shop, W. Pedder a tripe dresser; many people ate tripe and onions a popular dish, which because meat was very restricted due to rationing helped to feed the family. F. E.Webber the footwear repairer had his business at no.75 Hessle Road, it adjoined the corner shop Gilbert Street fisheries, on the opposite site of this very short street was the The Foundry Arms, a Moors & Robson public house, the exterior of which was attractively decorated with a green and white tiled fascia.. Along this block was Lyzabeth’s sweets and tobacconist and on the east corner of Neptune Street stood a branch of the Hull Savings Bank. Across Neptune Street was no.91 The Lily Hotel, a Henry Wilson public house, between the Lily and R & L Taylors, glass, china, and hardware was a small men’s public convenience. At 97-99 Hessle Road was the Smith & Nephew Welfare & Personnel Dept, Men’s Club, the last shop on this block was Gordon Roach, fishmonger. (I remember sometime after the war, at the rear of this shop, an unexploded bomb was blown up under control by an Army disposal team) The next street was Tadman Street which was home to Smith & Nephew which employed a large workforce with many women working to produce bandages, elastoplasts and dressings. (since that time the Company has grown and now the factory occupies the complete area from one side of Ropery Street, Neptune Street and the whole of Tadman Street.) As a youngster I remember me and my mates playing on the large wrapped 4 x 4 cube shaped bags of cotton wool. An antic for which we were frequently chased by the factory foreman. I also remember the bad winter of 1947 when there was 4/5 foot snow drifts all down the roads and streets. We made a load of snowballs and ‘attacked’ the girls as the were leaving, harmless fun but not popular with the workers.
On the west corner of Tadman Street was no.113 L.A. Tate, wholesale and retail tobacconist. The owner was an ex-policeman, a formidable sized man who more than once chased, would be shoplifters trying to steal cigarettes. I seem to remember a derelict (bombed) shop which I think was Dinsdales, joke and novelty shop. At 121 -123 was Mason’s (Clothiers) Ltd, men and boys outfitters. My mother used to clothe me at this establishment twice yearly, Grey Trousers, Navy Blue Jacket, white shirt, navy blue pullover, and overcoat and a red cap which spent more time in my pocket than on my head. Re-Vi-Ve dyers and dry cleaners were at 125 adjacent to G. Barnes the pork butcher, his saveloys were tasty and very popular. the last premises in the block on the corner of Daltry Street no.129-133 was taken up by Holders, television, radio and musical instrument dealer.
The block from Tadman Street running west housed Dinsdales a novelty/joke shop, Barnes a pork butcher and Masons, a men and boys outfitters situated on the corner of Daltry Street. This premises later became Holders, a music shop that was popular for its sale of records and musical equipment. On the west corner of Daltry Street was Lion Clothing Co. Ltd, outfitters adjoining was Pashleys a ladies hairdresser followed by a fried fish shop, Coronation Fisheries, Eggleton cobblers, taxi office Nippy Cars, Melville second hand dealerSelles Chemist, an electrical shop Fields, and Sammy Wolfe, men’s barber who was a popular and flambuoyant character. The main Hessle Road Post Office was situated on the corner of Madeley Street, a street which was famous for the public swimming baths which also offered wresting, boxing, dances, skating facilities.
On the north side of the junction of Hessle Road and Walker Street formed a corner which housed Rowlands Chemist and Rowlands travel and leather goods. A number of small shops were based on the north side up to Villa Place a narrow lane with houses that lead to a school of the same name. These premises included Gilboys pet and aviary requisites, Mrs. Bennet, a wardrobe dealer and Darley’s the fishmonger The next street along from Villa Place was Campbell Street the home of Riley’s Dairies and popular milk factory.This stretch was taken up by Hutchinson, grocer and confectioner with a cafe. Continuing to the west saw Alma Marshall, ladies hairdresser, Robinsons, newsagent and tobacconist, Fletchers family buchers, Longbottoms coal and coke merchants, Booth’s greengrocer and fruitier, and at 30 32a three Corporation establishments, Waverley restaurant, the Central Purchasing Dept, Corporation Restaurants Head Office. Mason’s buy an sell exchange and mart, Liptons grocery and provisions merchant and Gordon Fraser, chemist completed the buildings up to Campbell Street.
Going west from Campbell Street were a number of shops and a pub.The shops consisted of Woodhead confectioner and tobacconist, and at no.52 and 54 Rileys Dairies bakers and confectioners and Riley’s Northern Dairies pork butchers adjoining Westerbys a family butcher. followed by the Sheffield Arms an Hull Brewery Public House, another watering hole favoured by many fishermen. Completing this block was the Modern Dress Agency, gowns for sale and hire, Wilson family butcher and on the corner of Staniforth Place was Meadow Dairy Co. Ltd, a deli type grocers and provisions merchant, one of the shops that at that time sold butter and cheese products cut from large blocks as you requested and wrapped in it grease proof paper. Staniforth Place was a narrow badly bomb damage street which housed a popular social club, the Adelaide Club. Local Hessle Road character Sammy Walsam was a popular compere with a good voice who entertained on social evenings.
Just along from the corner going west was a fruit and vegetable shop owned by Ken Heseltine which was close to one of the most famous shops in West Hull, Winckles Pieshop. The pies produced from this shop were legendary and people today recall how tasty their product was. Their pies had a unique taste and the pastry texture was crisp but dissolved in the mouth on contact It was a small establishment which did a take away service but you could also eat inside in very limited numbers. The meat pies were the most popular, but they also did fruit pie and custard. A dinner from Winckles was a treat we always looked forward to. The business was for many years run by a local family by the name of Bishoprick, a male family member in later years was a cook on trawlers in the Hull fishing fleet. Also along this block on the north side from Staniforth Place was Arthur Boulton,, family butcher, a shoe shop (Stead & Simpson?) As youngsters me and my mates once witnessed a man climbing back over the wall from the shoe shop with a sack full of what obviously were shoes. When the police came to investigate the burglary we had to make statements about the man’s appearance. Not sure if it helped catch him, we were never contacted again. Going west along this block was no.92 Levitts a ladies outfitters, J.J.N. Mackman bakers and confectioners and Winterburns confectioner and tobacconist.
The next intersection was a small grove called Vauxhall Grove with a photographers W.H. Duncan and a drapers at no.102 on the west corner. Regent Street came next which was the location of the famous public wash house used by many families prior to the introduction of the household automatic washing. This facility was subject to great demand and people were forced to book time slots to use the washers, dryers, etc. As a youngster I along with a couple of friends would get up at around five am to queue and pre-book a boiler for our Mothers. The womenfolk who frequented this facility were hardworking, industrious and vocal. It was said that all gossip and rumours originated from the wash house. If someone became involved in a dubious incident it was said they would become ‘ the talk of wash house’
Whilst queuing one morning I remember local boxer Peter Morrison walking past on his way from the railway station after a bout in London in which he had taken a bit of a beating, but he passed cheerful comments to the many people he knew as he went on his way. Peter was employed for many years as bobber on the fish market and was always a friendly and sociable man, I had the privilege many years later to live next door but one from him and his wife Dorathy and daughter Diane. Dot for many years served the public food and drink in Darley’s the popular pub and eating place on Boothferry Road. A salt of the earth family.
On the west side of Regent Street was Wilkinson’s family butcher and Nancy’s Laldies hairdresser next door to Izzy Turner the pawnbroker occupying the corner of Wellesley Avenue, a small terraced area, with Smith’s newsagents on the other. The newsagents was my source of boys comics, the Hotspur, Rover, Wizard and Adventure providing boyhood heroes such as ‘Limp along Leslie’ Roy of the Rovers. the Cannonball Kid, Alf Tupper, the Tough of the Track, Red Circle a school story.etc. This block leading to Bean street housed W.Fish a greengrocers shop, later to become Laughton’s, and a Mallory’s hardware store, with a Jackson’s store on the east corner.
On the North side the west corner of Bean Street had a premises called Linsleys which was licensed to sell most alcoholic beverages. .